This is an analysis of the current features of the global market, defining the key directions of developing an effective educational policy in the Ukraine and ways to accelerate the export of educational services.
The main system characteristics of globalization include revolution in information and communication, the growth of transnational research and educational networks and relationships, the integration of the global economy and competition between nations and markets. Under these conditions our country must clearly identify priorities for the education system to ensure its international competitiveness.
Relevance of the study
From an industrial society we have moved towards an economy based on knowledge. Today the competitiveness of the economy is determined by the volume of production or natural resources, especially by its intellectual potential. In other words, under the current conditions the primary factor is the main resource of knowledge and information. Knowledge becomes a source of wealth for the individuals and for the state in general.
Education is one of the most important components of human development. Today the highly developed nations of the world clearly demonstrate the significance of the system of higher education in implementing structural reforms, innovation, human freedom and selfimprovement, wealth, growing needs, social security and so on. The globalization of the world, the rapid development of scientific research and new information technologies require accelerated development of advanced innovative education, the creation of conditions for development in personality, intelligence and spirituality.
Analysis of the recent research and publications
The challenges of globalization in education have been investigated by numerous Ukrainian and foreign scientists: F. Altbaha, L. Verbitsky, A. Dzhurynsky, A. Lyferova, J. Knight, L. Oderiya, R. Patory, O. Sahinovoyi, P. Scott, Hans de Vita. The possibilities of integrating the Ukrainian market of educational services are discussed by V. Zhuravsky, M. Zgurovsky, M. Stepko. However, investigation remains open to questions regarding trends in the transformation of education in the Ukraine to meet the current challenges of globalization of the education market. The integration processes in higher education have intensified globalization, which was the determining factor in the development of the post-industrial world. This is evidenced by the appearance of new forms of learning and new areas of international education based on new information and communication technologies; increase in the number of research centres engaged in current issues of training and the development of appropriate recommendations; efforts of the developed countries to carry out a coherent policy, and even the development of a single strategy in the field of education, including universities (ECTS). However, there is an urgent need to identify the main directions in the export of educational services from the Ukraine in a globalizing world educational space.
Isolation of the unsolved aspects of the problem in the article
…the volume of the education market in 2010 reached 110 billion U.S. dollars…
The integration processes in higher education have intensified globalization, which was the determining factor in the development of the post-industrial world. This is evidenced by the appearance of new forms of learning and new areas of international education based on new information and communication technologies; increase in the number of research centres engaged in current issues of training and the development of appropriate recommendations; efforts of the developed countries to carry out a coherent policy, and even the development of a single strategy in the field of education, including universities (ECTS). However, there is an urgent need to identify the main directions in the export of educational services to the Ukraine in a globalizing world educational space.
The aim of this article is to study the major trends of the global education market and the possibility of expanding the export of services in this area to the Ukraine in a globalized educational space.
Presentation of the main material
Today, the concept of “global education market” is a new process, manifest in the development of international relations in the field of training. The globalization of education is uneven: currently in this area the U.S. is in the lead, as it controls one third of the international education market, followed by the United Kingdom by 13%, Germany by 10%, and France by 9%. According to experts, the volume of the education market in 2010 reached 110 billion U.S. dollars, and the competition will continue to intensify. Globalization in the Higher Education Space is a process of integration of educational services as a whole, which includes the transition to uniform educational programmes. Among the main conditions of globalization of educational services the following can be identified:
– the general trend of globalization of the world economy; – development of the world labour market;
– development of the information society.
Modern effects of globalization, which is felt particularly acutely after the global financial crisis of 2008 clearly highlighted two groups of countries - those which benefited from and those which lost on globalization. The winners are the most economically developed countries and the financial and industrial groups developed on their basis. The category of losers include less developed countries, for which the shift towards an integrated world order turned enormous material and social disadvantage. This way globalization in the modern world is a process that ensures the well-being of the strong at the cost of the weak. However, the processes of globalization for both the Ukraine and most of the countries are inevitable. Thus, an important task at this stage is to preserve the Ukrainian identity, culture, mentality and educational potential etc.
An important factor in the international competition for the education market is the development of export education, providing an additional source of revenue for schools, as part of their image and credibility and a necessary condition for the effective development of education and science in the country. The export of educational services today is based on four basic models: students studying abroad, remote learning, opening branches, and faculty exchanges. In a globalized educational market in the Ukraine should introduce a range of measures to ensure protection of the interests of national institutions and should accelerate the process of integration into the educational markets by increasing the export of educational services through:
– accessibility education at universities in the Ukraine for foreign students, including the facilitation of entrance exams, visa for foreign students, documentation and free access to information;
– state support to Ukrainian students to study abroad, which is on the increase, but is funded exclusively by private philanthropists and foundations in support of talented youth in the Ukraine. A good example to follow is the cooperation between the state and students in India, where students are exempted from payment of the cost of studying abroad in case they return to work at home.
educational institutions of the Ukraine;
– the use of marketing tools, including a set of measures aimed at increasing demand for educational services at domestic institutions; Today, the main constraints to the export of educational services and the formation of a competitive educational environment in the Ukraine are, in our opinion as follows:
1. Unstable political environment, and as a result, lower security in training;
2. Powerful development of new, competitive, global education market participants. The world market for educational services today has three major competing markets:
– North American markets (U.S., Canada);
– European markets (UK, Germany, France.) The current education market is intensively improving the quality of their services at traditional and new universities alike, but in many countries, particularly in the Ukraine, Russia and Europe, the ratio of young people decreases because of depopulation and declining birth rates;
– Pacific markets (Australia, New Zealand, Japan). According to many experts, the eastern countries have an increasing share in the export of educational services , their growth rates are significantly higher than other market participants, which allows one to conclude that a fourth educational centre (China, Singapore) is in the making;
3. Disparity in the existing educational quality requirements set in the global educational process;
4. Low quality management system in education, and as a result, high levels of logistics, reducing the quality of the teaching staff;
5. Lack of government support for training local students abroad and the low level of investment in the development of science.
6. Insufficient preparation of national universities in teaching students, e.g. difficulty in obtaining visas etc.
If we objectively assess the state of the education market in the Ukraine, the key competitive advantage in the export of educational services, which may serve to attract foreign students, is the low price of tuition, the fundamental approach to teaching the subject and using the Bologna approach in the development of the curriculum.
The contemporary processes of globalization in all spheres of social life involve building a single educational space based on the integration of national markets and educational services, and the harmonization of educational standards. In the current context of globalization, the main trend in the global education market is integration at all levels of the national economies and as part of the social and economic system. In this process the Ukraine considers its public education competitive in the European and world educational space, but the country should –build a secure and mobile labour market. As an important direction, integration of the Ukrainian and world educational space should remain focused on the competitive advantages of domestic higher education system (low cost and accessibility of higher education for foreign nationals). At the same time, considerable work must be done to reduce the impact of adverse factors. Therefore, the Ukraine should give thorough consideration to the possibility of expanding the export of educational services, relationship between the traditional and non-traditional forms of education, and the competitiveness of education.
Prospects for the use of the research findings
International experience shows that the overwhelming majority of the education market consists of public and private sectors. In the private sector (non-government) educational services are sold and consumed at market prices. In this market of educational services private commercial institutions or government agencies providing services on a contract basis operate. In the future research could be devoted to international experience and internationalization features of educational activities in public and private higher educational institutions, and the mechanisms to attract private sector funding to universities and other institute.